The Persian Gulf War (August 2, 1990 – February 28, 1991) was waged against Iraq in response to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait. Authorized by the United Nations, forces from thirty-four countries were led by the United States. The war is also known as the Gulf War, First Gulf War, Gulf War I, Kuwait War, First Iraq War, or Iraq War. Later the term “Iraq War” became identified with the 2003 Iraq War, or Operation Iraqi Freedom. The Persian Gulf War included Operation Desert Shield (August 2, 1990 – January 17, 1991 for the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia) and Operation Desert Storm (the combat phase from January 17, 1991 to February 28, 1991).